Poisonous Plants - A summary

Discussion in 'Identification Area' started by Phil A, Nov 9, 2010.

  1. Phil A

    Phil A Gardener

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    We often talk of toxic plants on the forum. Here is a list curtesy of Wikipedia, also please check this direct link to the site for occasional updates.

    [Quote:]

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_poisonous_plants

    For the benefit of those new to gardening and Aaron. :lollol:




    List of poisonous plants

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    700 cattle that were killed overnight by poisonous weeds


    Below is an extensive, if incomplete, list of plants containing poisonous parts that pose a serious risk of illness, injury, or death to humans or animals.
    Contents




    Many food plants possess toxic parts, are toxic unless processed, or are toxic at certain stages of their life. Notable examples include:
    • Apple (Malus domestica). Seeds contain cyanogenic glycosides; in most species, the amount found in a single fruit won't kill a person; but it is possible to ingest enough seeds to provide a fatal dose.
    • Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Toxic in the unprocessed form.
    • Cherry (Prunus cerasus), as well as other species (Prunus spp) such as peach (Prunus persica), plum (Prunus domestica), almond (Prunus dulcis), and apricot (Prunus armeniaca). Leaves and seeds contain cyanogenic glycosides.
    • Chocolate. Contains theobromine at levels toxic to dogs and cats.
    • Indian pea (Lathyrus sativus). A legume grown in Asia and East Africa as an insurance crop for use during famines. Contains oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP), a neurotoxin causing wasting and paralysis if eaten over a long period.
    • Kidney bean or common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Contains the lectin phytohaemagglutinin, which causes gastric upset. Toxicity removed by thorough cooking.
    • Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans). Contains myristicin.
    • Lima bean or Butter Bean (Phaseolus lunatus). Raw beans contain dangerous amounts of linamarin, a cyanogenic glucoside.
    • Lupin. Some varieties have edible seeds. Sweet Lupins have less, and Bitter Lupins have more of the toxic alkaloids lupinine and sparteine.
    • Onions and garlic. Onions and garlic (genus Allium) contain thiosulphate, which in high doses is toxic to dogs, cats and some other livestock.
    • Potato (Solanum tuberosum). Foliage and green-tinged tubers are toxic, containing the glycoalkaloid solanine, which develops as a result of exposure to light. Causes intense digestive disturbances, nervous symptoms, and in high enough doses, death.
    • Rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum). Leaf blades, but not petioles, contain oxalic acid salts, causing kidney disorders, convulsions, coma. Rarely fatal.
    • Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Foliage and vines contain alkaloid poisons which cause digestive upset and nervous excitement.
    [edit] Other poisonous plants

    • Aconitum (Aconite, wolfsbane, monkshood) (Aconitum napellus). The poison is concentrated in the unripe seed pods and roots, but all parts are poisonous. Causes digestive upset, nervous excitement. The juice in plant parts is often fatal.
    • Adenium obesum. Also known as Sabi Star, Kudu or Desert-rose.The plant exudes a highly toxic sap which is used by the Akie and Hadza in Tanzania, to coat arrow-tips for hunting.
    • Agave. The juice of a number of species causes acute contact dermatitis, with blistering lasting several weeks and recurring itching for several years thereafter.
    • Asparagus. The berries are poisonous.[1]
    • Autumn crocus. The bulbs are poisonous and cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Can be fatal.
    • Azalea. (Azalea ssp.) All parts of the plant are poisonous and cause nausea, vomiting, depression, breathing difficulties, coma. Rarely fatal.
    • Bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara). All parts are poisonous, containing solanine and causing fatigue, paralysis, convulsions, and diarrhea. Rarely fatal.[2]
    • Bleeding heart (Dicentra cucullaria)/Dutchman's breeches. Leaves and roots are poisonous and cause convulsions and other nervous symptoms.
    • Black locust. Pods are toxic.
    • Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum). All parts of the plant except the ripe fruit contain the toxin glycoalkaloid solanine.
    • Blue-green algae (Anacystis cynea and Anabaena circinalis)
    • Angel's Trumpet (Brugmansia). All parts of the plant contains the tropane alkaloids scopolamine and atropine. Often fatal.
    • Calabar Bean (Physostigma venenosum) Also known as ordeal beans due to their former use in trials by ordeal. Contains the alkaloid physostigmine.
    • Caladium / Elephant Ear. All parts of the plant are poisonous. Symptoms are generally irritation, pain, and swelling of tissues. If the mouth or tongue swell, breathing may be fatally blocked.
    • Castor oil plant (Ricinus communis). The phytotoxin is ricin, an extremely toxic water-soluble protein, which is concentrated in the seed. Also present are ricinine, an alkaloid, and an irritant oil. Causes burning in mouth and throat, convulsions, and is often fatal.
    • Cerbera odollam. Colloquially known as the Suicide Tree, the nut contains cerberin, which stops the heart.
    • Cocklebur (Xanthium spp.). Seedlings and seeds are poisonous to livestock.
    • Daffodil (Narcissus (genus)). The bulbs are poisonous and cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Can be fatal. Stems also cause headaches, vomiting, and blurred vision.
    • Daphne (Daphne sp.). The berries (either red or yellow) are poisonous, causing burns to mouth and digestive tract, followed by coma. Often fatal.
    • Darnel / poison ryegrass (Lolium temulentum). The seeds and seed heads of this common garden weed may contain the alkaloids temuline and loliine. Some experts also point to the fungus ergot or fungi of the genus endoconidium, both of which grow on the seed heads of rye grasses, as an additional source of toxicity.[3]
    • Datura / nightshade. Contains the alkaloids scopolamine and atropine. Datura has been used as a hallucinogenic drug by the native peoples of the Americas and others.[4] Incorrect dosage can lead to death.
    • Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). All parts of the plant contain the toxic alkaloid atropine. The young plants and seeds are especially poisonous, causing nausea, muscle twitches, paralysis; often fatal.
    • Deathcamas / black snakeroot. All parts of the plant are poisonous, causing nausea, severe upset.
    • Delphinium. Contains the alkaloid delsoline. Young plants and seeds are poisonous, causing nausea, muscle twitches, paralysis, often fatal.
    • Doll's eyes. Berries are highly poisonous, as well as all other parts.
    • Dumbcane / dieffenbachia. All parts are poisonous, causing intense burning, irritation, and immobility of the tongue, mouth, and throat. Swelling can be severe enough to block breathing, leading to death.
    • Elderberry. The roots are considered poisonous and cause nausea and digestive upset.
    • European Holly (Ilex aquifolium). The berries cause gastroenteritis.
    • Excoecaria (milky mangrove, blind-your-eye mangrove, river poison tree).
    • Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea). The leaves, seeds, and flowers are poisonous, containing cardiac or other steroid glycosides. These cause irregular heartbeat, general digestive upset, and confusion. Can be fatal.
    • Giant hogweed is a phototoxic plant. Its sap can cause phytophotodermatitis (severe skin inflammations) when the skin is exposed to sunlight or to UV-rays. Initially the skin colours red and starts itching. Then blisters form as in burns within 48 hours. They form black or purplish scars, which can last several years. Hospitalisation may become necessary. Presence of minute amounts of sap in the eyes can lead to temporary or even permanent blindness.
    • Gifblaar (Dichapetalum cymosum). Well-known as a livestock poison in South Africa; this plant contains the metabolic poison fluoroacetic acid.
    • Hemlock (Conium maculatum). All parts of the plant contain the relatively simple alkaloid coniine which causes stomach pains, vomiting, and progressive paralysis of the central nervous system. Can be fatal; it is the poison that killed Socrates. Not to be confused with hemlock trees (Tsuga spp), which are not edible but are not nearly as toxic as the herbaceous plant Conium.
    • Hemlock water-dropwort (Oenanthe crocata). Carrot-like roots poisonous to livestock.
    • Henbane. Seeds and foliage poisonous.
    • Horse-chestnut. All parts of the plant are poisonous, causing nausea, muscle twitches, and sometimes paralysis.
    • Ivy. (Hedera helix)The leaves and berries are poisonous, causing stomach pains, labored breathing, possible coma.
    • Holly. Berries cause vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea.
    • Hyacinth. The bulbs are poisonous, causing nausea, vomiting, gasping, convulsions, and possibly death.
    • Jequirity. The seed is extremely poisonous.
    • Jerusalem cherry. (Solanum ssp.). All parts, especially the berries, are poisonous, causing nausea and vomiting. It is occasionally fatal, especially to children.
    • Jimson weed / datura / thorn apple / stinkweed / Jamestown weed (Datura stramonium). All parts of the plant are poisonous, causing abnormal thirst, vision distortions, delirium, incoherence, coma. Often fatal. A significant grazing livestock poison in North America.
    • Laburnum. All parts, especially the seeds, are poisonous, causing excitement, staggering, convulsions, coma; occasionally fatal.
    • larkspur (both Delphinium and Consolida spp[5]). Young plants and seeds are poisonous, causing nausea, muscle twitches, paralysis. Often fatal.
    • Lilies. Most are poisonous, especially to cats.
    • Manchineel (Hippomane mancinella). All parts of this tree, including the fruit, contain toxic phorbol esters typical of the Euphorbiaceae.
    • Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum). Green portions of the plant, unripe fruit, and especially the rhizome contain the non-alkaloid toxin podophyllotoxin, which causes diarrhea, severe digestive upset.
    • Monkshood. All parts of the plant are highly poisonous. Ancient warriors used it to poison their enemies' water supplies. Used in the past for killing wolves. Causes burning, tingling, and numbness in the mouth, then the intestine, followed by vomiting; death by asphyxiation.
    • Moonseed. The fruits and seeds are poisonous, causing nausea and vomiting. Often fatal.
    • Mother of Millions (Kalanchoe tubiflora). These plants are deadly to livestock, and there is every indication that they are toxic to humans.
    • Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia). All parts of the plants are poisonous.
    • Oak. (Quercus ssp). Most species' foliage and acorns are mildly poisonous, causing digestive upset, heart trouble, contact dermatitis. Rarely fatal. Consumed, after proper processing, as a staple in many parts of the world.
    • Oleander (Nerium oleander). All parts are toxic, containing nerioside, oleandroside, saponins, and cardiac glycosides, but especially the leaves and woody stems. They cause severe digestive upset, heart trouble, contact dermatitis. Very toxic. The smoke of burning oleander can cause reactions in the lungs, and can be fatal.
    • Ongaonga (Urtica ferox). Even the lightest touch can result in a painful sting that lasts several days.
    • Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), Poison-oak (T. diversilobum), and Poison sumac (T. vernix). All parts of these plants contain a highly irritating oil with urushiol (actually not a poison, but an allergen). Skin reactions can include blisters and rashes. It spreads readily to clothes and back again, and has a very long life. Infections can follow scratching. As stated, this is an allergen, and the toxin will not affect certain people. The smoke of burning poison ivy can cause reactions in the lungs, and can be fatal.
    • Pokeweed (Phytolacca sp.). Leaves, berries and roots contain phytolaccatoxin and phytolaccigenin. Toxin in young leaves is reduced with each boiling and draining.
    • Passiflora caerulea (P.caerulea) sap and rotten leaves cause death or heart-attacks.
    • Passiflora foetida (P.foetida) bract have the poison to kill insects, while unripe fruit are poisonous and contains sodium that can kill people.
    • Privet (Ligustrum sp.). Berries and leaves are poisonous. Berries contain ligustrin and syringin, which cause digestive disturbances, nervous symptoms. Can be fatal.
    • Redoul. (Coriaria myrtifolia). A mediterranean plant. The fruits are poisonous, often fatal in children.
    • Rhus lancia | African sumac (Rhus lancia). Closely related to poison ivy, all parts of this tree contain low levels of a highly irritating oil with urushiol (actually not a poison, but an allergen). Skin reactions can include blisters and rashes. It spreads readily to clothes and back again, and has a very long life. Infections can follow scratching. As stated, this is an allergen, and the toxin will not affect certain people. The smoke of burning rhus lancia can cause reactions in the lungs, and can be fatal.
    • Stinging Tree (Dendrocnide excelsa, Stinging tree) and similar species. The plant is capable of inflicting a painful sting when touched. The stinging may last for several days and is exacerbated by touching, rubbing, and cold. Can be fatal.
    • Strychnine Tree (Strychnos nux-vomica). The seeds of the strychnine tree usually contain about 1.5% strychnine, an extremely bitter and deadly alkaloid. This substance throws a human into intense muscle convulsions and usually kills within three hours. The bark of the tree may also contain brucine, another dangerous chemical.
    • Water hemlock (Cicuta sp.). The root, when freshly pulled out of the ground, is extremely poisonous and contains the toxin Cicutoxin. When dried, poison is reduced to roughly 3 to 5 percent of that when fresh.
    • White Snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) All parts are poisonous, causing nausea and vomiting. Often fatal. Milk from cattle that have eaten white snakeroot can sicken, or kill, humans (milk sickness).
    • Yellow Jessamine. All parts are poisonous, causing nausea and vomiting. Often fatal. It is possible to become ill from ingesting honey made from jessamine nectar.
    • Yew (Taxus baccata). Nearly all parts of the Yew contain toxic taxanes, except the red fleshy aril surrounding the toxic seeds.[6][7] Yew seeds are especially toxic if chewed.[8] Several people have committed suicide by ingesting leaves and seeds.[9][10]
    • Zantedeschia aethiopica (Lily of the Nile or Calla lily) Zantedeschia is highly toxic and may be fatal if eaten.
    [Quote:]
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
     
    • Informative Informative x 2
    • Victoria

      Victoria Lover of Exotic Flora

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      :thmb: That's a good idea Ziggy as so many people get 'entranced' by one or two toxic plants and ignore the fact how many common garden, plants, shrubs and trees are toxic in the average garden.
       
    • Penny in Ontario

      Penny in Ontario Total Gardener

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    • wiseowl

      wiseowl Friendly Owl ADMIN Staff Member

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      Done Ziggy great idea my friend:)
       
    • Kristen

      Kristen Under gardener

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      my 2p-worth:

      I think it would be better to LINK to Wikipedia. I don't know what the copyright issues might be (I don't think there are any that prohibit a straight-copy, but at the least a URI is required, which is currently absent), but even in the absence of copyright issues Wikipedia is a moving-target as people amend/improve its articles, and a copy & paste here will become stale. Also, your copy & paste requires changing all the relative-links etc. (as it stands all-bar the cited external links at the end don't work)
       
    • wiseowl

      wiseowl Friendly Owl ADMIN Staff Member

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      Good evening Kristen,I will leave it here for now and see what the Reponses are :)
       
    • Kristen

      Kristen Under gardener

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      I don't have strong views (although it would be nice to fix, or remove, the broken links)
       
    • Phil A

      Phil A Gardener

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      Good idea Kristen, sorted that.

      Have checked out the copyright, which is why i've pasted a link to the licence agreement at the bottom.

      Reason for copy and paste was that not all our members will know to click on a link, my mum wouldn't for one :old: :help: Hi Mum0)
       
    • Phil A

      Phil A Gardener

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      Blimey, just checked it & put the link to the licence agreement back in, you don't have to worry about that one Woo, cheers for helping :thumb:
       
    • Phil A

      Phil A Gardener

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      BTW, i've done Strychnine & it didn't kill me in 3 hours like it says.:skp:

      It did make me twist my arms & legs up a lot though :yez:
       
    • Kristen

      Kristen Under gardener

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      So presumably not recommended?!!

      It does seem overly pessimistic.

      "Apple - it is possible to ingest enough seeds to provide a fatal dose."

      I presume that's if one, or more, germinate? I've been eating Apples, core-pips-and-all all my life - I hope its not a cumulative poison!

      And their liberal use of "often fatal" seems to be using a different definition of "often" to me - "Live to die again another day" maybe? :D
       
    • PeterS

      PeterS Total Gardener

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      Ziggy - excellent post. I hadn't realised that parts of Apples and Cherries etc were poisonous.

      Also its surprising how many things are poisonous but can rendered edible through cooking. I am currently growing Solanum laciniatum whose fruits, like so many Solanums are poisonous, but when cooked can be made into jam.

      As long as you quote the source, I don't see anything wrong in pasting something from elsewhere.
       
    • Phil A

      Phil A Gardener

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      Wasn't deliberate, someone "cut" something else with the stuff, quite interesting though.

      Your body can deal with small amounts of cyanogenetic glycosides, its when it has too much at once. Classic case was a chap that liked them a lot so he saved up a tea cup full to eat all at once. Killed him.

      Mind you, a bottle of rum can kill you if you're not used to drinking & you necked it back in a few minutes.
       
    • Phil A

      Phil A Gardener

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      " I hope its not a cumulative poison!"

      If you drink scrumpy all your life, with its crushed apple pips in it, your nose will swell up & split vertically down the middle & most of the cappilaries on your face will burst, but otherwise no.
       
    • Phil A

      Phil A Gardener

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      Cheers Peter,

      We've spent the summer stopping members eating potato fruits, just occured to me to put it all in one place, for the good of all members.

      Checked out the copyright bit before I posted, all legal with the link to the licencing agreement at the bottom.:yez::)

      Not come across Solanum Lacinatium, sounds milky.
       
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